Alpha acid units. The measurement, in percentage of alpha acid, of the potential bitterness in hops.
Grains (such as rice, corn, maize, or wheat) used in addition to malted barley to make a beer. They tend to lighten
the flavor of a beer and produce alcohol.
An intoxicating by-product of fermentation, which is caused by yeast acting on the sugars in the malt. Alcohol
content is expressed as a percentage of volume or weight; the US uses weight.
One of the larger families of beers. True ales are fermented with top-fermenting yeast. They are low in
carbonation and served warm. Best known in England.
Recently rediscovered in America, all-malt refers to a beer made exclusively from barley malt, without adjuncts.
A German ale noted for its copper color and less wine-like taste.
Enzymes that liquefy starches and convert them to maltose (sugar) and dextrins.
The particular combination of smells from malt, hops, yeast, and any unusual or distinctive disturbances in the
Balance Hoppiness versus maltiness
The complexity of their interaction, and a measure of the brewer's art.
One US barrel equals two kegs or 31 gallons.
The three major beer styles are lagers, ales, and specialty beers. Specialty beers are brewed with various
A fermented beverage made from barley. hops, water, and yeast, and sometimes other ingredients.
One of the British ales almost exclusively served on draft in English pubs.
The taste component added by hops.
Black Patent Malt
Malted barley roasted at high temperatures to give color and taste to the beer.
German-style beer with a strong alcoholic content. Dopplebock has yet a higher alcoholic content (6% or more)
and Eisbock (made with a freezing process) can have an alcoholic content equivalent to wine.
The particular feel of a beer is described as full-bodied, medium-bodied, or light bodied, depending on the sense
of thickness or thinness in your mouth.
Bottle of Beer
A bottle of beer equals twelve ounces.
Bottom-fermenting Yeast (Lager Yeast)
The yeast used to ferment lagers. This yeast works at colder temperatures than ale yeast and settles to the
bottom of the fermentation vessel.
The collection of smells, usually floral, that a drinker smells before tasting the beer. Sometimes described as
the combination of hop character, malt aroma, and fruitiness produced from esters that are formed by the yeast
A sweet, coppery malt, caramel malt imparts both color and flavor to beer. Dried in a particular fashion, caramel
malt has a high concentration of unfermentable sugars that sweeten the beer, contributing to head retention.
Also known as crystal malt.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A gas consisting of one part carbon and two parts oxygen released during fermentation.
A condition occurring in some beers at low (near freezing) temperatures caused by proteins in the beer becoming
cloudy. Not an indication of bad beer.
The process of creating carbonation in the finished beer, typically taking place in the bottle or keg after sugar is
added. Conditioning can also mean aging or lagering beer.
Making beer for smaller companies that either do not have a brewery of their own or lack the capacity to meet
Non (or slowly) fermentable carbohydrates found in the malt. They give beer flavor, body, and mouthfeel.
Esters are organic compounds that result from the interaction of acids and alcohol. The presence of esters can
cause the fruity flavors and aromas, such as banana, blueberry, and pear, that intentionally or unintentionally
occur in some beers.
This is the process of producing alcohol and carbon dioxide through the actions of yeast on grain-based sugars.
The process of passing beer through a porous substance to clarify it. This process occurs after fermentation.
A process of producing a bright beer by clearing the beer of unwanted haze or yeast, by adding ingredients such as
isinglass or gelatin.
The weight of a liquid relative to the weight of an equal volume of water. Specific gravity must be checked
before and after fermentation. Used as an indication of the amount of alcohol present in the finished beer.
Dry mixture of barley malts and adjuncts used in mashing.
Foam that forms on top of the beer when it is poured. Head tends to indicate the degree of carbonation, hops, and
malt in the beer.
Commonly means beer brewed at a person's home.
The amount of hops added to a specified volume of wort. Often referred to in BUs (bittering units).
One of the four principal ingredients of beer, hops are flower cones added to beer as a bittering agent, a
preservative, and an aromatic.
The first part of the clarification process, occurring when the wort is boiled with hops.
A thermometer-like device used to measure the specific gravity to determine the proportion of potential alcohol
in the beer.
The process of introducing mash into hot water for mashing. The infusion method of mashing involves mashing a
single time at a constant temperature, as opposed to other, more complex mashing techniques that involve
mashing more than once at different heat levels.
A seaweed that is added to boiling wort
to filter proteins.
Material made from fish bladders used to
A vessel holding 15.5 gallons that is used
for serving beer in large quantities.
A small quantity of sweet, unfermented wort
added to finished beer. This wort ferments to produce natural carbonation.
A beer, usually lambic or brown, that is
brewed with cherries.
From the German word to store, lagers represent a major family of beers. They have a longer and cooler
fermentation period than ales, and are brewed with bottom-fermenting yeast. Most German and North American
beers are lagers.
Aging the beer by letting it stand for a number of days in a lagering tank.
Spontaneously fermented wheat beers from Belgium. The yeast is not manually added; instead, it is allowed to
drift in from the surrounding countryside.
Low-calorie beers that also usually have a low-alcohol content (for example, 3.2%). Sometimes light beer is
produced by simply watering a full-calorie and/or full-alcohol beer.
Beer damaged by exposure to light. Also known as corona.
The water used in making beer.
Syrups manufactured by evaporating excess water out of wort.
The basis of beer. Malted barley is created by germinating (sprouting) barley for optimum starch content and
enzyme development, then drying it quickly. This provides starches that convert to sugars, which then ferment
into alcohol and CO2.
The main fermentable sugar obtained from malted grains.
The double-jacketed, stainless-steel vessel in which mashing occurs.
The preparation of the wort, the liquid base of beer. Mashing converts starches to sugars by mixing malted barley
with hot water.
Breweries and brewpubs producing less than 1,500 barrels per year.
A sensory way of evaluating the body of a beer. Mouthfeel is the viscous feeling in the mouth that provides a
measure of the texture of beer, ranging from thick to thin.
Dark brown or golden German lager beers featuring sweet taste and full body.
Taste. Influenced by the grains, hops, water, yeast, and adjuncts used in production.
Light-colored ales that are usually full-bodied and on the bitter side.
The process of heating finished beer to kill all living organisms in it, thereby stabilizing it for shipping and
increased shelf life.
A type of lager beer, first made in Czechoslovakia in the late 13th century.
Adding yeast to the wort in the fermentation tank.
A characteristically dark brown beer, of English origin. The bitterness of this beer derives from the use of
roasted, unmalted barley.
Occurring after pitching the yeast and during the first three days on the average, fermentation converts sugars to
alcohol and carbonation. Fermentation time for the microbrewery ranges from three to seven days.
Sugar added to the bottle or keg that ferments and provides CO2.
The process of adding sugar to the brew to create carbonation, either in the bottle or keg.
Nitrogen-containing compounds, an excess of which cause a haze in beer.
The process of separating the fermented beer from the yeast cells at the bottom of the fermenting vessel. Also
the transfer of finished beer to kegs. Broadly, moving beer from one vessel to another.
A German purity law enacted in 1516 stipulating that beer can be made only from barley, hops, water, and yeast.
The never-ending process of cleaning brewing equipment.
Yeast material at the bottom of the bottle formed as a result of conditioning the beer in the bottle. Not a sign of
Describes the number of days that a beer retains its peak drinkability. Shelf life is usually a maximum of four
months for commercially produced beers.
Rinsing the mashed grains to ensure complete extraction of the sugars from the mash.
A fuller-bodied, richer, and sweeter version of porter. Irish/English in origin.
Hardness in water that can be removed by boiling.
Top-Fermenting Yeast (Ale Yeast)
A style of yeast that works at cellar or warm temperatures and floats to the top of the beer. Ale yeasts are
responsible for the creation of most beers other than lagers. However, this style of brewing is practiced mostly
in England and very few breweries in the US use this type of yeast to produce real ales. Instead, US ales are made
with a modified lagering process.
Proteins in barley filtered during the wort boil.
A beer made with approximately one-quarter wheat malts and usually served cold with either woodruff or
A beer made with approximately one-third wheat malts and usually served cold with lemon.
The sweet liquid derived from mashing, or mixing malted barley with water. Wort is the beginning of all beers.
Living plant microorganisms that convert sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide.