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Beer From the Expert's Viewpoint

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Beer From the Expert's Viewpoint
By Arnold Spencer Wahl and Robert Wahl

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Publisher: Wahl Institute, Chicago, 1937. Reprint, 2014.
Soft Cover, 509 pages, 5.5 x 9.0.
Item #1745

More books in our Classic Reprint Series...

Theory and Practice of the Preparation of Malt and the Fabrication of Beer

History of the Brewing Industry and Brewing Science in America

With the repeal of National Prohibition in 1933, the Wahl Institute in Chicago sprang to life. Chemist Robert Wahl, along with son Arnold Spencer Wahl, resumed the in-depth study of brewing science for which the Institute had become famous before Prohibition. In 1937, the Wahls published this book, the first of what was intended to be a 4-volume set designed to educate a new generation of American brewmasters. The Wahls believed that history was critical to a full understanding of beer. So, the topics of modern brewing are presented within a strong historical context, aided by more than 60 illustrations. Intermingled with those discussions are many of the elder Wahl's personal recollections of the pre-Prohibition heyday of brewing -- giving a rare first-person account of the history of American beer styles, ingredients, brewing methods, and more.


Although America was one of the last nations to commence widespread brewing operations, the art and practice has advanced in this country to a production, skill, and science equal to none. And all within a few hundred years! The need for an authoritative and up to date treatise on brewing in the United States has become acute. There have of course been a wealth of brewing books published. Technical libraries are crammed with them, written in many tongues. At the turn of this century one of the authors of this work wrote and published under his name and that of his business partner, the American Handy Book of the Brewing, Malting and Auxiliary Trades, which became the recognized reference in all technical brewing matters.

That compendium sufficed up until the time of that most notorious of all sociological experiments in the whole universal record of misguided reform -- Prohibition. But when brewing operations commenced again in 1933, a revolutionized industry was a reality; for modern science and chemists, engineers, and high pressure advertising almost immediately brought the manufacture of beer to a position of commercial comparison with even the gigantic industrial giants of steel and automobiles. Too many new discoveries from recent researches have been made for even the most alert brewer to keep his hands upon them all. There was indeed a shouting, begging, pleading, crying need and demand for a new, all-embracing, accurate and masterful encyclopedia on modern brewing in America!

The directors of the Wahl Institute of Brewing Technology, Dr. Robert Wahl and Arnold Spencer Wahl, heard the call immediately that beer came back, and no sooner had its echo resounded than they commenced the Herculean task of preparing, writing, and publishing the most ambitious literary work on Beer, Brewing, and Malting ever presented in print.

Such is the plan and the purpose of this work and so has it been conceived and created. This first volume of four -- Beer From The Expert's Viewpoint -- is like Act One in a Four Act Drama of Beer.



  • What Beer Is
  • Cereal Base
  • Beer Defined
  • Lager Beer
  • Lager Beer Technically
  • Lager Beer Physically
  • Beer From the Chemist's Standpoint
  • Beer From the Standpoint of Nutrition
  • Beer to the Connoisseur
  • Beer Economically
  • Beer Commercially
  • Lager Beer Sociologically
  • Beer Under Peremptory Legislation
  • Noble Experiment Defeats Itself
  • Crime Increased
  • Laws Against Beer Always Fail


  • Brewing in Babylonia and Egypt
  • Medieval Brewing
  • Old English Brewing
  • Brewing Materials
  • Caramel Malt
  • Malt Adjuncts
  • Hops
  • Water
  • Brewing Operations and Equipment
  • Elevator or Millhouse
  • Brewhouse
  • Mashing in Cereal Cookers
  • Mashing in Mash Tubs
  • Boiling the Wort in Kettle
  • Wort in Hop Jack
  • Cool Ship and Beer Tank
  • Baudelot Cooler
  • Special Coolers
  • The Cellars
  • Fermentation of Wort
  • Storage of Beer
  • Finishing Tank Treatment
  • Filtration of Beer
  • Powder Filters
  • Racking of Beer
  • Carbonating
  • Pitching and Varnishing


  • Alcoholic Beverages
  • Origin of Names Used
  • Beer and Bread Making
  • Fermentum of the Romans
  • Advent of Hops
  • Brewing in Ancient Egypt
  • Advent of Teutonic Culture
  • Brewing in Medieval Monasteries
  • Medieval Brewing By Government Concession
  • Hamburg Shipping Center
  • Eimbock Brewery; Its History Illustrative of the Interest the Industry Enjoyed in Those Times
  • Top Fermentation Beers
  • Ice Cooled Cellars
  • Wiener, Muenchener, and Pilsener Types
  • Brewing in America
  • The American Pioneers
  • The First Settlers
  • High Excise Duties on Liquor
  • Conditions on the Continent of Europe in Our Colonial Days
  • King Gambrinus
  • In the Colonies
  • Early Immigrants
  • Taverns and Inns
  • Sale of Malt
  • Beverage Was Legally Encouraged
  • There Was No Science Of Brewing
  • The Weather Governed Mostly
  • English Brewing Methods
  • Alcohol And Hops For Prevention Of Spoiling
  • The Advent Of Lager
  • Beer With German Immigration
  • Lager Beer Follows German Immigration
  • Improvements As To Cooling
  • Beer During The Civil War
  • New Flow Of German Immigration
  • Changes In Mashing
  • Methods And Cooling
  • Advent Of Ice Machine
  • Farewell To Brewing
  • The Human Race Progresses
  • Intelligence Triumphs
  • Sentimental Considerations
  • Facts Of No Consequence
  • HomeBrew Welcome
  • Beer Promotes Temperance
  • Summary
  • The Prohibition Era
  • Rise And Threatening Downfall Of A Great Republic
  • Independence And The Jeffersonian Principle
  • Spanish War
  • Brewers' Contribution To America's Rise
  • Plight Of The Farmers
  • Brewing Will Rehabilitate The Nation
  • The Danger Of A Debacle Avoided By Repeal Of The Eighteenth Amendment


  • The Pioneers Among The Scientists
  • Eye And Finger Were The Gauges
  • Hops Were Imported In Early Days
  • Brewing Equipment
  • Mashing By Hand
  • Boiling And Cooling
  • Gyle Or Fermenting Tuns And Stillions
  • Infusion Mash
  • Bottled Goods
  • Taste For Lively Ales
  • Age Of Steam Begins
  • Instruments For Accuracy
  • Pure Yeast Culture
  • Progress Of Brewing Science
  • Brewers' Colleges
  • Brewing Science In America
  • Further Technical Publications
  • Summary
  • United States Brewers' Association
  • The Association And Scientific Pursuits
  • Brewing Associations
  • Scientific Methods Introduced Into Practice
  • Some Of The Changes Effected
  • The New Spirit Among Brewers
  • Introduction Of Pure Yeast
  • International Exposition Of Barley And Hops In 1911
  • Foreign Visitors
  • The Master Brewer
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonic Gas
  • Fermentation And Combustion
  • Products Of Fermentation
  • Yeast Organism
  • Chillproofness
  • Peptic Strength And Lactic Acid


  • Foreign Organisms
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Aseptic Conditions
  • Modern Physiology And Chemistry
  • Artificial Refrigeration
  • Carbonating
  • Filtration
  • Clarification Aids Displaced
  • Mashing And Fermentation Methods Changed
  • Superiority Of American Barley
  • International Brewers' Convention 1911
  • Refinement Of Flavor
  • American Hops
  • American Brewing Methods
  • Some Statistics
  • According To Schrohe
  • In Prehistoric Times
  • Sour Dough
  • Beer In Egypt
  • Origin Of Terms
  • Liebig's Idea Of Yeast
  • Nature Of Yeast Finally Recognized
  • Pasteur Researches
  • Brewing As An Industry
  • Middle Ages
  • Early German History
  • Advent Of Alcohol
  • Origin Of Term Alcohol
  • Origin Of Word Gas
  • Carbonic Gas For Tapping Beer
  • Lavoisier And Fischer's Work
  • Infection
  • Hansen's Pure Yeast
  • Yeast And Aeration
  • Wahl And Influence Of Lactic Acid
  • Buchner's Discovery
  • Fusel Oils
  • Schlitz In Brown Bottles
  • Wahl And Wallerstein
  • Neuberg's Chemical Mechanism Of Fermentation
  • Flavor Refining Accomplished
  • Peptic Power Placed On A Scientific Basis


  • The Pioneers
  • Philadelphia
  • New York
  • Lager Beer Breweries Become Dominant
  • Newark
  • Boston
  • Albany
  • Cincinnati
  • Renner Ohio Breweries
  • Renner, Youngstown, Adopts Wahl System
  • Dayton
  • St. Louis
  • Milwaukee
  • Chicago
  • New Orleans
  • California


  • Unsatiated Satisfaction Of The Senses
  • An Old Beer Test
  • Why Good Beer Is So Popular
  • Beyond The Dictionary
  • Beer Tastes Are Many
  • A Mingling Of Smells Is Detectable In Beers
  • The Word Flavor Often Misused
  • The Song Of Suffigkeit


  • The Most Important Essential
  • Quality Depends On Amount Of Original Extract
  • Original Extract Influences The Brewing Cost
  • Beer Types Depend Upon Original Extract
  • Original Extract Upon Beer Labels


  • Beers Classified
  • Quality, Character, Properties, Types And Composition Of Beers
  • Foreign Beers For Shipping
  • Bottle Beers
  • German And English
  • Beer Types Compared
  • Preservation During Storage
  • Stock And Bottle English Beers
  • American Top Fermentation Beers
  • Influence On Composition
  • Difference In Process Of Production
  • Differences In Storage
  • Differences In Ale And Stout Brewing
  • Comparison Of Lactic Acid Contents
  • Free And Total Acid
  • Physical Properties
  • Various Properties
  • Quality Derived From Composition
  • Relation Of Alcoholic Content To Extract
  • Importance Of Various Constituents
  • Foreign Opinions
  • Carbon Dioxide And Alcohol
  • Extractive Substances
  • Analyses Of European Beers
  • Comparative Beer Compositions
  • Mild Pilsener Type Beer
  • Strong Pilsener Type Beer
  • Muenchener Type Beer
  • Vienna Type Beer
  • American Stock Ale
  • Half And Half
  • Analysis Of Characteristic Beers
  • Properties Of Beer
  • Character Of Faulty Beers
  • Lack Of Chillproofness
  • Color, Clarity And Effervescence
  • Color By Tintometer Scale
  • Taste And Odor
  • Many Off Odors Possible
  • Relatively Few Taste Conceptions
  • Harsh Bitter
  • Hop Oily Beers
  • Lack Of Foam Stability And Palatefulness
  • Gas Should
  • Be Found
  • Excessive Gas
  • Lack Of Body Of Palatefulness
  • Beer Faults Due To Iron
  • Conditions Favoring Foam Stability
  • Flavor Of Beer, Normal And Abnormal
  • Bohemian Yeast In American Breweries
  • Sulphurous Acid In Beer And Its Consequences
  • No Sulphites Should Be Used
  • To Save Onion Beers
  • Avoidance Of Dangers Inherent In The Employment Of Faulty Yeast
  • Yeasty Odor
  • Fault Because Of Insufficient Settling
  • To Insure Vigorous Yeast
  • Excretionary Substances
  • Detrimental Influence Of Foreign Ferments
  • Cellar Or Musty Odor
  • Hospital Odor
  • Bread Crust Odor
  • Protein Turbidity
  • Influence Of Chilling On Correcting Turbidity
  • Faulty Beers From Faulty Barley Varieties
  • Turbidity Due To Faulty Mashing
  • Faulty Brewing Water
  • Faultiness Due To Exposure To Light In The Bottle
  • Faultiness Due To Improper Handling In Dispensing
  • Faultiness Due To Kraeusening


  • Beer Must Be Served Properly
  • When Beer Is Served Too Cold
  • No Flavor Or Taste
  • All Properties Affected When Cold
  • Careless Handling
  • Cooling And Serving Beer In Bottles
  • Mechanical Cleaning Of Beer Dispensing Lines
  • Use Of Alkalies
  • Mechanical Means Preferred
  • Glass Beads And Brushes
  • Operation Should Be Visible
  • Time Required
  • Cleansing Of Beer Coils
  • Sanitary Feature
  • Brewers' Responsibility


  • Production Considerations
  • Brewing A Science
  • Threatened Revival Of Attempts At Creating Beer Standards
  • Supreme Court Decision Ends F.A.C.A.
  • Beers And Yeasts
  • Weiss Beer
  • Ale
  • Types
  • Malting Operations Effect Beer Character Most


  • Tentative American Standards For Malt Liquors
  • Attempted Regulation
  • American Malts Are Different
  • Brewers' Committee Arguments Should Be Studied
  • Reports Of Other National Committees
  • The Arguments Of The Brewers' Committee
  • Age Of Beer Cannot Be Established By Analysis
  • The Mackinac Island Session
  • Brewers' Committee At The Hearing
  • Tentative Standards Unreasonable
  • Standard Imported Beers Do Not Conform
  • Standard Imported Ales
  • American All Malt Beers vs. European
  • Celebrated European Lager Beers Do Not Comply
  • European Export Beers Brewed Stronger Than For Domestic Use
  • Character Of American Malt Responsible
  • Difference In Compositions Of American All-Malt Beers
  • Malt Adjuncts Necessary
  • In No Country Is Composition Or Age Of Beer Prescribed
  • Three Months' Storage Does Not Conform To Usage
  • In England Mild Ales May Be Only Two Weeks Old
  • Mild Ales Preferred By Many
  • Adjunct Beers Preferred
  • Psychological Aging For Three Months An Extinct Feature
  • Change Of Requirements Suggested
  • Important Questions As To Analysis
  • Ash And Phosphoric Acid
  • Use Of Sugar In Lager Beer Brewing
  • Sugar For Durability
  • Benefits Of Sugar Krausen Explained
  • Advantages Gained With Sugar Krausen
  • Effect Of Hopping
  • Use Of The Term "Cereal" Indefinite
  • The Chicago February Session
  • Report Of The United States Senate Committee On Manufactures
  • No Preservatives Found In American Beers
  • Should A National Standard Be Fixed
  • Different Types Of Beer Made In Same Brewery
  • Use Of Corn Or Rice Not Deleterious

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